The consumption of cereals and their by-products is the main source of animal exposure to mycotoxins. In addition to regulated mycotoxins, it is important to be aware of the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins, such as beauvericin and enniatins A, A1, B, B1, and masked mycotoxins. These groups of mycotoxins are not routinely found in raw material and/or feed and may be undetected. In fact, the analysis methods for their identification are in the process of research and development in order to be able to establish legislative levels of recommendation or regulation. According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2014), the available data on the toxicokinetics of beauvericin and enniatins are limited. Likewise, further studies are required to evaluate the toxicity of masked mycotoxins and their impact on animal health.

¿What are emerging mycotoxins?

Beauvericin and enniatins are emerging mycotoxins with a similar chemical structure. They are mainly produced by fungi of the Fusarium genus and can frequently coexist with other Fusarium fungal toxins in cereal grains. According to EFSA, the inophortic properties of these emerging mycotoxins are associated to their potential cytotoxic effect. However, further studies are required to determine the toxic properties of these emerging mycotoxins in order to know the tolerance levels of the different animal species and the risk they pose in animal production.

¿What are masked mycotoxins?

Masked mycotoxins are mycotoxins modified by the metabolism of plants, fungi and animals. They often have similar toxicity to their parent toxin, but can also be more or less toxic depending on bioavailability: they can have a direct effect on the organism or generate other metabolites. In the case of zearalenone and its derivatives, the analogy with the chemical structure of estrogen determines its toxicity, mainly affecting the reproductive system (Tatay, 2017). α-Zearalenol is a zearalenone metabolite that is characterized by having greater estrogenic activity and, consequently, being more toxic in the animal (Ropejko and Twaruzek, 2021). Likewise, the union with groups such as sulfates or glucuronic acid generates metabolites such as zearalenone-14-glucuronide, one of the dominant masked mycotoxins in blood and tissues (Póor et al., 2023).

Mycotoxins, a growing problem in animal Feed

The increase in clinical manifestations due to the ingestion of contaminated feed by mycotoxins needs an effective solution to minimize the exposure of animals to emerging and masked mycotoxins, and thus mitigates the negative consequences that they may cause in animal health.

BIŌNTE® has developed the product BIŌNTE® QUIMITŌX® PLUS, a combination of specific minerals, phytogenics and organic components effective to mitigate the mycotoxins.

Recently, the results of an in vitro study have demonstrated the efficacy of this product against emerging and masked mycotoxins. It should be noted that the product also has high efficacy against the most prevalent mycotoxins (Zearalenone, Fumonisin B1, Ochratoxin, Toxin T2 and Aflatoxin FB1) validated by Trilogy Lab (US).

Validation of the efficacy of BIŌNTE® QUIMITŌX® PLUS

Specifically, the trial was carried out in collaboration with the Biotech Agrifood Laboratory of the University of Valencia (Spain) to demonstrate the efficacy of BIŌNTE® QUIMITŌX® PLUS against emerging mycotoxins such as beauvericin and different enniatins, in addition to the masked mycotoxin ZEA- 14-glucuronide.

The study simulated the gastrointestinal tract conditions and its efficacy was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) at pH 3 (simulating stomach conditions), and at pH 6 (simulating the intestine conditions).

The results showed that the BIŌNTE® QUIMITŌX® PLUS solution has optimal in vitro efficacy against the emerging mycotoxins evaluated: beauvericin, enniatin A, enniatin A1, enniatin B, enniatin B1. Regarding ZEA-14-glucuronide, the in vitro efficacy of BIŌNTE® QUIMITŌX® PLUS is 93.4% at pH 3 and 92.6% at pH 6.

In summary, BIŌNTE® QUIMITŌX® PLUS obtained high efficacy against the emerging and masked mycotoxins. In addition, other studies support high efficacy against the most dangerous mycotoxins in animal nutrition with a rapid and selective action, demonstrating that it is a decisive solution to mitigate the effects of mycotoxins in animal production.