Data on masked mycotoxins is still very scarce due to analytical challenges and the subsequent lack of established methodologies for routine testing.

Emerging and Masked Mycotoxins are a field of research at BIŌNTE as well as QUIMITŌX®’s response to this challenge.

Emerging Mycotoxins are mycotoxins that are not routinely determined and are not legislatively regulated, including fusaproliferin, beauvericin, enniatins and moniliformin, all produced by the most common family of grain contaminating fungi, Fusarium spp.



Enniatin A


Masked Mycotoxins formed by conjugation with polar compounds, as a plant defense mechanism, are not analyzed by conventional methods and may be more toxic than the original mycotoxin.

The systematic definition of masked mycotoxins or “biologically modified” mycotoxins is especially challenging, since chemical modifications introduced by plant metabolism have potential effects on both toxicity (which could be increased or decreased compared to to the original toxin molecule) as in analytical detection.

Masked mycotoxins are either carbohydrate or protein bound and therefore not extractable with existing protocols intended for mycotoxin extraction or not detectable using established chromatography routines; hence their name “masked” mycotoxins.

Furthermore, due to structural similarities, some masked compounds (sometimes differing in toxicity) are co-detected with the mycotoxin itself by, for example, immunoassays.

Among the group of masked mycotoxins, the most commonly observed in animal feed are ZEA-14-sulphate and DON-3-glucoside.

Its toxicological properties, including the conversion of DON-3-glucoside to DON and ZEA-14-sulfate to ZEA by the intestinal tract microbiota, are currently being investigated to assess the risks of masked mycotoxin exposure.