The recommendations for the reduction of mycotoxins in cereals are divided into two parts: the recommended practices based on Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP).

It is advisable to follow proper hygiene practices for raw materials for animal feed during packaging, storage, transport and production of feed, to minimize contamination with mycotoxins. Once again, prevention is part of the best solution.

Immediately after harvest, it is necessary to determine the moisture levels of the crop; where appropriate, dry to the recommended moisture content for storage of the crop in question. Samples taken for moisture measurements should be as representative of the lot as possible. To reduce moisture content variation within the lot, the grain can be transported to another facility –or silo– after the drying process.

Cereals should be dried in a manner that minimizes damage to the grains and keeps moisture levels below those that allow fungi growth during storage (typically less than 15 percent) in order to prevent the proliferation of a series of fungal species, especially Fusarium, which may be present on fresh grains.



The European health authorities have a Guide to Good Manufacturing Practices in order to reduce mycotoxin contamination in animal and human food.

Thanks to this guide, farmers and producers have the guidance to modify cereal cultivation and storage habits, reducing the levels of mycotoxins in crops and cereals, as well as the formation of ochratoxin A.

One of the aspects that this guide insists on the most is avoiding intense rotations of wheat, corn, oats and barley crops, products where fungi appear easily.

On the other hand, the need to guarantee optimal storage conditions is also insisted on; that is, regulated temperature, good ventilation and humidity control, among others. These factors are essential when it comes to products that must be accumulated in large quantities.

The recommendations in the Guide to Good Manufacturing Practices are based on the idea that controls should start from the earliest stages of production. In fact, different studies confirm that many of the mycotoxins are stable and can be maintained and multiply even at high temperatures and in certain industrial processes.


In addition to the application of Good Manufacturing Practices, control is another fundamental step to achieve the reduction of mycotoxin levels.

The recommendation is to have a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system.

These controls are required by the official food control authorities and are mandatory in the food industry.

The HACCP system is based on the following pillars:

  • Strategies of Good Manufacturing Practices
  • Good Hygiene Practices
  • Good Farming Practices
  • Good Storage Practices