Different yeast species possess varying adsorption capacities, which are not solely determined by their intrinsic characteristics but also depend on the specific type of mycotoxin present. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast that has demonstrated effectiveness against ochratoxin A, zearalenone, and deoxynivalenol under laboratory conditions. Other yeasts have shown different affinities for various mycotoxins. Lachancea thermotolerans significantly reduces OTA in vitro, as do yeasts such as Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia anomala, and P. Kluyveri. Among the mentioned yeasts, P. anomala decreases the biosynthesis of aflatoxin B1 produced by Penicillium flavus. Based on the aforementioned information, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is undoubtedly the most commonly selected option for mycotoxins control (Pfliegler, Pusztahelyi, & Pócsi, 2015).
Through the use of different yeast species, the industry selects genetically suitable strains to fulfill the adsorption function. Therefore, there is a meticulous process of genetic design and cultivation to ensure that the yeast has a cell wall with a wide range of affinity for certain groups of mycotoxins (Martin, Lagorce, & François, 2020). In addition to this genetic factor, environmental conditions, particularly pH, play a role. The functionality of the yeast cell wall is effective at a pH close to neutral, unlike in an alkaline environment. Acidic conditions (found in the digestive tract) are conducive to the function of glucans, which is one of the reasons why yeast or its derivatives are considered for addition to feed additives (Piotrowska, 2021). Several authors state that the amount of cell wall is positively related to wall thickness and cell diameter, so as the amount of cell wall increases, the adsorption of mycotoxins improves (Pfliegler, Pusztahelyi, & Pócsi, 2015). Along with the cell wall structure, the organization of glucan (α-d-glucan and β-d-glucan) plays an essential role in adsorption and modulates the binding strength of the cell wall-mycotoxin complex (Devreese, De Backer, & Croubels, 2013). Additionally, these polysaccharides are directly related to immune cells and bind to pathogens to prevent their adhesion to the gastrointestinal tract (Broadway, Carroll, & Burdick, 2015). Recent studies assert that the successful action of the adsorbent with the mycotoxin does not depend on the use of whole yeast but rather on the components included within the cell wall. It is suggested that by preserving the intact yeast cell wall or the non-viable cell, the adsorption capacity is more effective (Pfliegler, Pusztahelyi, & Pócsi, 2015). Finally, it has been demonstrated that β-d- glucan is the fraction directly involved in the sequestration of zearalenone, and based on other in vitro assays, glucomannans effectively bind to mycotoxins such as DON, T-2 toxins, zearalenone, and ochratoxin (Devreese, De Backer, & Croubels, 2013).